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Effects of 3.5‐GHz radiofrequency radiation on energy‐regulatory hormone levels in the blood and adipose tissue

Abstract

In recent years exposure of living beings to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from wireless equipment has increased. In this study, we investigated the effects of 3.5-GHz RFR on hormones that regulate energy metabolism in the body. Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups: healthy sham (n = 7), healthy RFR (n = 7), diabetic sham (n = 7), and diabetic RFR (n = 7). Over a month, each group spent 2 h/day in a Plexiglas carousel. The rats in the experimental group were exposed to RFR, but the sham groups were not. At the end of the experiment, blood and adipose tissues were collected from euthanized rats. Total antioxidant, total oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, ghrelin, nesfatin-1, and irisin were determined. Insulin expression in pancreatic tissues was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. Whole body specific absorption rate was 37 mW/kg. For the parameters analyzed in blood and fat, the estimated effect size varied within the ranges of 0.215–0.929 and 0.503–0.839, respectively. The blood and adipose nesfatin-1 (p = 0.002), blood and pancreatic insulin are decreased, (p = 0.001), gherelin (p = 0.020), irisin (p = 0.020), and blood glucose (p = 0.040) are increased in healthy and diabetic rats exposed to RFR. While nesfatin-1 are negatively correlated with oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and insulin, ghrelin and irisin are positively correlated with oxidative stress and hyperglycemia. Thus, RFR may have deleterious effects on energy metabolism, particularly in the presence of diabetes.

Bioelectromagnetics, EarlyView.  

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Abstract

In recent years exposure of living beings to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from wireless equipment has increased. In this study, we investigated the effects of 3.5-GHz RFR on hormones that regulate energy metabolism in the body. Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups: healthy sham (n = 7), healthy RFR (n = 7), diabetic sham (n = 7), and diabetic RFR (n = 7). Over a month, each group spent 2 h/day in a Plexiglas carousel. The rats in the experimental group were exposed to RFR, but the sham groups were not. At the end of the experiment, blood and adipose tissues were collected from euthanized rats. Total antioxidant, total oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, ghrelin, nesfatin-1, and irisin were determined. Insulin expression in pancreatic tissues was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. Whole body specific absorption rate was 37 mW/kg. For the parameters analyzed in blood and fat, the estimated effect size varied within the ranges of 0.215–0.929 and 0.503–0.839, respectively. The blood and adipose nesfatin-1 (p = 0.002), blood and pancreatic insulin are decreased, (p = 0.001), gherelin (p = 0.020), irisin (p = 0.020), and blood glucose (p = 0.040) are increased in healthy and diabetic rats exposed to RFR. While nesfatin-1 are negatively correlated with oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and insulin, ghrelin and irisin are positively correlated with oxidative stress and hyperglycemia. Thus, RFR may have deleterious effects on energy metabolism, particularly in the presence of diabetes.

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Effects of 3.5‐GHz radiofrequency radiation on energy‐regulatory hormone levels in the blood and adipose tissue

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