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Expression levels of tam receptors and ligands in the testes of rats exposed to short and middle‐term 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation

Abstract

With advances in technology, the emission of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) into the environment, particularly from mobile devices, has become a growing concern. Tyro 3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors and their ligands are essential for spermatogenesis and testosterone production. RFR has been shown to induce testicular cell apoptosis by causing inflammation and disrupting homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the role of TAM receptors and ligands in the maintenance of homeostasis and elimination of apoptotic cells in the testes (weeks), short-term sham exposure (sham/1 week), and middle-term sham exposure (sham/10 weeks). Testicular morphology was assessed using hematoxylin-eosin staining, while immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess expression levels of TAM receptors and ligands in the testes of all groups. The results showed that testicular morphology was normal in the control, sham/1 week, and sham/10 weeks groups. However, abnormal processes of spermatogenesis and seminiferous tubule morphology were observed in RFR exposure groups. Cleaved Caspase 3 immunoreactivity showed statistically significant difference in 1 and 10 weeks exposure groups compared to control group. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the immunoreactivity of Tyro 3, Axl, Mer, Gas 6, and Pros 1 between groups. Moreover, Tyro 3 expression in Sertoli cells was statistically significantly increased in RFR exposure groups compared to the control. Taken together, the results suggest that RFR exposure negatively affects TAM signalling, preventing the clearance of apoptotic cells, and this process may lead to infection and inflammation. As a result, rat testicular morphology and function may be impaired.

Bioelectromagnetics, EarlyView.  

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Abstract

With advances in technology, the emission of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) into the environment, particularly from mobile devices, has become a growing concern. Tyro 3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors and their ligands are essential for spermatogenesis and testosterone production. RFR has been shown to induce testicular cell apoptosis by causing inflammation and disrupting homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the role of TAM receptors and ligands in the maintenance of homeostasis and elimination of apoptotic cells in the testes (weeks), short-term sham exposure (sham/1 week), and middle-term sham exposure (sham/10 weeks). Testicular morphology was assessed using hematoxylin-eosin staining, while immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess expression levels of TAM receptors and ligands in the testes of all groups. The results showed that testicular morphology was normal in the control, sham/1 week, and sham/10 weeks groups. However, abnormal processes of spermatogenesis and seminiferous tubule morphology were observed in RFR exposure groups. Cleaved Caspase 3 immunoreactivity showed statistically significant difference in 1 and 10 weeks exposure groups compared to control group. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the immunoreactivity of Tyro 3, Axl, Mer, Gas 6, and Pros 1 between groups. Moreover, Tyro 3 expression in Sertoli cells was statistically significantly increased in RFR exposure groups compared to the control. Taken together, the results suggest that RFR exposure negatively affects TAM signalling, preventing the clearance of apoptotic cells, and this process may lead to infection and inflammation. As a result, rat testicular morphology and function may be impaired.

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Expression levels of tam receptors and ligands in the testes of rats exposed to short and middle‐term 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation

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